Mobile usability white paper

The white paper below can be downloaded in as a PDF file

Contents

1.Executive Summary
2.Objectives
3.Findings

4.Comparative & Overall Analysis

5. Conclusions
6.Recommendations
7.Acknowledgments

1. Executive Summary

This White Paper report was compiled by usability consultancy User Vision, based on a research study which set out to examine, in detail, the usability of mobile phone handsets. The aim of the research was to identify examples of best practice in handset and application design and to recommend areas for improvement.

The research took the form of a comparative usability evaluation of four of the latest handsets from Orange, Nokia, Samsung and Sony Ericsson, all of a similar specification and all running on the Orange network for consistency. The study focused on both product design and applications from the end user perspective; and was conducted using nine test subjects who had a minimum three years experience using a mobile, and had neither used or owned any of the test phones.

A within-subjects design was employed where the subjects were asked to perform three tasks on each of the four mobile phones for which the order of presentation was randomised The tasks were as follows:

  • Task 1: Sending a text message to a specified name in the Phone Book.
  • Task 2: Changing the phone’s current ring tone.
  • Task 3: Accessing today’s news from the BBC website.

The evaluation was conducted at the User Vision facility during October 2005. The nine subjects were asked to perform each of the tasks on each of the following four mobile phones:

  • Orange SPV E200
  • Nokia 6630
  • Samsung D500
  • Sony Ericsson S700i

The methodology employed was as follows:

  • Post-task questionnaire – completed after each task
  • Post-phone questionnaire – completed after each individual phone test
  • Post-test questionnaire – completed after testing all four phones (to provide a comparison between the phones tested)

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2. Objectives

The overall objective of the study was to gather empirical qualitative and quantitative evidence of the ability of users to complete common tasks using a range of handsets, and to identify any difficulties encountered.

The aims of the study were therefore as follows:

  • To compare and contrast four mobile phone handsets in terms of both application and product design
  • To evaluate the extent to which they succeeded in attempting each task, and the problems encountered
  • To examine the extent to which users were dissatisfied or satisfied with the overall experience, providing ratings for each handset
  • To investigate users’ attitudes towards the perceived importance of a range of phone attributes
  • To generate a series of usability recommendations for the design of mobile phone handsets.

Mobile phone

Usability test

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3. Findings

This section details the study findings for each of the handsets in turn.

3.1 Orange SPV E200

Usability Findings

Mobile phone handsetGeneral

  • The home key is an excellent feature because it acts as a shortcut (escape) out of a complicated interface. Occasionally, subjects thought the home icon might represent the homepage of a web page. Many subjects expected the red hang-up button would take them back to the home screen
  • Subjects often found the use of the directional and select joystick to be awkward and cumbersome, particularly when moving left, right, up or down. Carrying out the ‘select’ action was particularly frustrating and difficult because they needed to press the joystick downwards, often mistakenly pressing in another direction as a result. Occasionally the joystick was mistakenly perceived to be a select button rather than a 4 directional joystick.
  • The icons at the bottom of the display were generally regarded as too small to be clear, with subjects often struggling to navigate to them even though they felt it must be possible to get there. When highlighted by the orange square, users often did not recognise that the relevant icon had been highlighted.
  • Not all subjects were able to relate the ‘start’ label as referring to the ‘Menu’. Some subjects thought that there were only five main sections on the phone; those shown at the top of the home screen. Although subjects suspected that the horizontal icons were selectable, they were often unable to negotiate the joystick to get to the selectable options below the icons across the top of the screen.
  • The default timer for the backlight was felt to time-out too quickly (between 10 and 15 seconds).

Task 1: Sending a text message.

  • Subjects were often unsure how to use/navigate to the bottom half of the screen to begin creating/typing a text message. Although an ‘Inbox’ option is available from the Start menu, all subjects felt that it was inappropriate to have the inbox as the primary option for text messages (and is contrary to their experience). The overall conclusion was that it was illogical to go to the inbox to create a new message.
  • The difficulties in using the joystick meant that subjects rarely succeeded in selecting the options underneath the icons. The text message task would have benefited from user’s ability to access the ‘Write new message’ option underneath the message icon on the display. Selecting the message icon itself took the subject to the inbox (not desirable).
  • When editing or creating a text message it was not immediately clear how to delete a character. The return button was often not identified as the delete button because it is a ‘go back 1 step/screen’ button on other screens/sections/modes. Subjects only resorted to trying the return button in the absence of a dedicated cancel (‘C’) button.

Task 2: Changing the current ring tone.

  • Showing the ring tone name on the home screen (underneath the Settings icon) is good feedback especially for letting users know that they have changed the ring tone or for letting them know the name of the current ring tone in use.
  • There appeared to be no obvious method of previewing ring tones prior to changing them, which wasn’t regarded as favourable to the majority of subjects.

Task 3: Accessing today’s news from the BBC website.

  • Subjects were all familiar with the internet Explorer icon – therefore making it easier to access the web feature.
  • Users were able to access the ‘Address bar’ option to enter or specify their own URL. This option is available by pressing the ‘Menu’ button (soft key) at the bottom right of the internet Explorer screen. The use of the label ‘Menu’ for the right hand side soft key was not clear or obvious for indicating access to sub-menus. Subjects thought it would be clearer if the label was, for example, ‘options’.
  • Subjects did not feel confident when disconnecting from the internet because there was no clear option to ‘disconnect’. Users can disconnect by pressing the red hang-up button, which will return them to the home screen of the phone. However, there was no feedback upon pressing the hang-up button therefore subjects were not confident that they had disconnected.

Ratings per Phone Attribute

Ratings bar

Despite good ratings in terms of size of display and buttons the ease of use rating was relatively low. The main reasons for this were the erratic behaviour of the joystick and the design of the application. In the time permitted during the testing subjects did not work out the shortcuts available. Overall, the mean scores were relatively low. One surprising result is the low ‘perception of quality’.

The fit and finish of the phone was good however, and the joystick use may have impacted the subjects’ perception overall.

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3.2 Nokia 6630

Usability Findings

General

  • Nokia hand setSubjects had great difficulty identifying how to access the menu for the phone. The relevant Menu button is unclear due to the unintuitive icon which suggests synchronization or connectivity more so than meaning ‘menu’. Subjects’ inability to identify the menu access key affected their perception of the phone from the outset – because they could not obviously locate the menu.
  • The audible click upon pressing the joypad is good feedback and gave confidence to subjects that they had actually pressed the key.
  • When navigating the Grid style menu, the graphical icons for each section were shown with the text label below the icon. The combination of showing icons with text labels was better than showing icons alone.
  • The 6630 is significantly different to the non-smart phone Nokia’s, therefore the learning curve was slightly higher than expected. Stumbling upon the menu, subjects felt that there were possibly too many options. Many of the features were unfamiliar, and most subjects felt that they probably would not use many of the advanced features available.
  • The horizontal tab style for navigating sub-menus is a good feature as it allows users to traverse across second level peer options without navigating away from the current screen.

Task 1: Sending a text message.

  • The Pencil icon button was often misunderstood, with some thinking that it would take them to the text message facility. Within the text message facility, some thought that the Pencil button would take them to the ‘symbols’ menu.
  • The ‘Create a text message’ screen was unfamiliar to subjects. It presents the ‘To’ entry field above the message entry field, on the same screen. This method of asking users for the recipient details along with the message was mostly unfamiliar to subjects as many participants were used to selecting the recipient after composing the message. To navigate the phone the Nokia uses a joy pad which has a concave indent for the thumb that can be pressed to select a highlighted item, or pushed to any of the four directions to navigate. Often users struggled to grasp that they needed to move down (press down on the joy pad) in order to edit/create a message.
  • When editing/creating a text message or when entering a URL address within the browser, subjects were often confused and not confident when it came to deleting a character or entering numbers and symbols, e.g. commas (,), forwards slash (/), etc. Between the ‘C’ (cancel) button and the ‘hang-up’ button users did not know and were not confident which of the two keys to press.
  • Searching through the contacts list was confusing. For example, when searching for Joe Smith under ‘J’, subjects are not sure if they are being shown a list of the surnames or first names beginning with ‘J’. Although subjects search by first name the contact list returned is displayed in the format of “surname first name” (there is no comma in between).
  • Although the soft key shortcuts are useful, those presented during testing (contacts and calendar) were not the most useful for the tasks required in the evaluation. However, when subjects could not locate the menu button, for sending a text message (first task) they went through the contacts list, found the entry for Joe Smith and were able to send him a text through that method.

Task 2: Changing the phone’s current ring tone.

  • To change the ring tone, users can do so via the ‘Profiles’ feature/option. However, many of the subjects were not able to gasp that they need to ‘edit a profile’ in order to change the ring tone.
  • The concept of editing and customising profiles for the ring tones task was unfamiliar and usually not understood. Another way of changing/accessing the ring tones feature is through the File Manager. Locating the ‘sounds’ option in the File Manager folder was confusing to the subjects. It was expected that this would have been located in the ‘settings’ menu option.

Task 3: Accessing today’s news from the BBC website.

  • The option to enter a URL is not shown upfront and subjects did not like being taken to the service provider’s content page first. Subjects expressed that they would like to see the address bar first.
  • The icon on the internet button was not obvious to subjects. Subjects felt that it would be more representative of the action to ‘synchronise’ rather than to access the internet.

Ratings per Phone Attribute

Nokia rating scale

Both the ‘comfort of use’ and the ‘ease of use’ ratings were low relative to the other metrics. However, the ease of use rating was still higher than both the SPV and the Sony Ericsson.

The phone features score was also relatively low. It should be pointed out this question was difficult to answer from the users perspective as they did not use many of the features on the phone. They therefore could not build up an accurate appreciation of all of the features.

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3.3 Sony Ericsson S700i

Usability Findings

General

  • Sony Handset Some subjects thought that the swivel action was gimmicky. Subjects did not know how to reveal the number pad at first; some thought the phone might be a clamshell style phone.
  • The label ‘More’ is used to indicate that there are further sub-sections within the current section. Some subjects did not think the ‘More’ label was obvious enough for indicating the availability of further subsections.
  • The central button on the joy pad was not obvious as being the ‘menu’ button, nor was it obvious that users can use it to ‘select’ an option (in the absence of the ‘select’ soft key). One subject thought the button was a joystick (even before they used the Orange SPV E200 phone).
  • When navigating the icon menu system, an associated text label was presented at the top of the screen. The associated text label at the top of the screen was not always noticed. In that instance, subjects felt that it was more helpful to present the menu options in text format because the icons were not familiar or easy to identify.

Task 1: Sending a text message.

  • When editing/creating text messages or when entering a URL into the address field, subjects were often unsure and unconfident as to which button they should press to delete a character. They were confused between the Return button – that takes the subject back to the previous screen – and the Cancel button – that is intended to be used as the delete button when typing.
  • Most subjects were unfamiliar with the T9 term for predictive text, especially when the menu option for switching predictive text on/off is ‘Dictionary (T9)’. This meant that they were not able to easily switch on/off predictive text. Even when shown the ‘Dictionary T9′ option (the relevant option to turn on/off predictive text) certain subjects did not understand the function. Perhaps ‘Predictive Text’ would have been more meaningful.
  • When predictive text is active, during the creation/editing of a text message, it will display predicted text within a floating window. The floating suggestions for predictive text were well received and acted as feedback that predictive text is on. The predictive text also predicts/suggests number entries which was good.
  • When users choose to send a text message, they are shown the ‘Sending message’ screen, this is positive feedback and is reassuring for users. This screen also presents users with the option to ‘Cancel’ the send which is a feature that subjects appreciated seeing.

Task 2: Changing the phone’s current ring tone.

  • The need to press Play to preview the ring tone received mixed responses at first but all agreed that it was a good option as it allowed them to change ring tones discretely rather than it being played automatically.

Task 3: Accessing today’s news from the BBC website.

  • The options on the ‘internet services’ screen are presented differently (hyperlinks) and are inconsistent to the options presented on initial screens (conventional menu style options) for other sections on the phone. The ‘more’ option in the internet services screen was often overlooked or not obvious. Users did not press the ‘more’ option to reveal further sub-menu sections associated with internet services, thus they were often unable to reveal the ‘Enter address’ option that they were seeking.
  • There is no ‘hang-up’ button on the phone therefore subjects did not immediately know how to disconnect from the internet. In the absence of a direct disconnect (from internet) button most subjects pressed the hang-up button.
  • The keypad shortcut (world icon) for web access was considered an excellent feature but not obvious enough. Users are presented with large text area for entering a URL; this is helpful as the whole address remains in view. Some subjects expected internet access would be in the ‘connectivity’ section.

Ratings per Phone Attribute

sony ericsson rating chart

The size of the display was by far the highest rated response with respect to the Sony Ericsson. Not only was this display large relative to the phone but it was larger than the other displays used in the study. A surprising result was the relatively low mean ‘ease of use’ rating as this was not the perception provided by the subjects during the study.

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3.4 Samsung D500

Usability Findings

Overall, the Samsung phone was well received between the test subjects. Many of the findings detailed below are relatively minor issues.

Samsung handsetGeneral

  • Users must slide the screen upwards to reveal/access the key/number pad. Subjects at first did not know how to reveal the key pad. It was not obvious that they needed to push the display upwards.
  • Again there was confusion on which button to press to delete characters when entering text using the phone. The buttons to cancel, delete, hang-up or return to the home screen were mostly confused with one another (for deleting text). There was also some confusion on how to switch in/out of character and number modes for typing text messages.
  • When navigating the menu system, many subjects did not notice the associated text label at the top of the screen for the menu icons. All subjects felt that text labels were far easier to use as it would require a lot of experience and familiarity to remember the meaning of each icon.
  • Direct navigation (shortcuts) to key functions on the left hand side of the home screen was appreciated and allowed users to bypass navigating through the menu system to access features that they use frequently. Although the home screen short cuts are presented as icons, the meanings for each icon (e.g. envelope for text messaging and book for phone book) were considered to be clear. The size for each icon was sufficiently large enough for users to navigate and select without trouble (as opposed to navigating the short cuts on the Orange SPV phone).
  • The sizes of the keys (of the main keypad) were felt to be too small to be successfully operated by all hand sizes. The recessed keypad proved difficult to operate for subjects with large hands. Additionally, the navigation device (joy pad) was located under a raised surface within the phone display area. This impeded clear access to the ‘up’ key for most subjects.
  • The soft keys are located at a distance from the label shown on screen; this made it difficult for users to visually link the key and the label together.

Task 1: Sending a text message.

  • Searching through the contacts list was confusing because it displayed the surname followed by first name (which most used as the search term). Most subjects would have preferred if the phonebook returned entries in the format of first name followed by surname. They would prefer if the phonebook inserted a comma after the surname if it displays the name in the current format of surname followed by first name.
  • m Users can switch off predictive text when entering a text message via the right hand soft key. However, the soft key was often overlooked. The label for the right hand soft key (T9 in text mode) was misinterpreted as being feedback information (indicating that T9 is active) rather than being an action label for the right hand soft key.
  • After creating a text message, users can enter up to 5 recipients. For that, the screen presents users with up to five empty ‘To’ entry fields. Some subjects were not familiar with the ability to send to multiple recipients at this stage in the text messaging process. Sometimes the send screen (with multiple ‘To’ fields) was misinterpreted as being a list of contacts in the phonebook, because the fields were empty, thus misleading subjects into thinking there were no contacts stored in the phonebook.

Task 2: Changing the phone’s current ring tone.

  • Some of the labeling in the menus was not intuitive e.g. ‘sound settings’ and ‘incoming calls’ (relating to the ring tones task). Most subjects chose sound settings or incoming calls by a process of elimination. A lot of subjects also expected it to be in ‘phone settings’ rather than in a separate ‘sound settings’ option.
  • When selecting a different ring tone, users were asked to confirm their ring tone selection by being asked if they want to ‘save’ the change. Asking the question if they want to ‘save’ the ring tone is positive feedback and gave users confidence that they had changed the ring tone.
  • On the ‘sound settings’ screen, a ‘>>’ icon is shown to indicate users can perform an action at that point, i.e. select to listen/preview a ring tone. The icon ‘>>’ located in the ring tone field was confusing and misleading because subjects believed that this was an indication to scroll right or press right to see more ring tones.

Task 3: Accessing today’s news from the BBC website.

  • Upon exiting or disconnecting from the internet/browser, the user is shown a “WAP disconnected” message. This feedback is good as this confirms that they have disconnected from the internet.
  • Users enter a URL directly into an address bar if they select one of ‘Your page’ or ‘Find’. When trying to access the BBC website, the labels ‘Your page’ and ‘Find’ were not obvious, neither was it obvious that the search field could be used to enter a URL.

Ratings per Phone Attribute

Samsung rating chart

The Samsung model is the only handset out of the four tested that ranked ease of use as the highest attribute. Curiously the size of display was also equally high, even though physically it was the smallest phone used in the tests. It can only be assumed that subjects rated this relative to the overall size of the phone. The keypad usability issues highlighted were reflected in the above ratings as this was the lowest rated aspect.

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4.0 Comparative & Overall Analysis

4.1 Ratings per Task

 

Rating scale per task

Overall, subjects found the tasks to be easy to perform across all 4 phones. In terms of task 1 (sending a text message) the Orange SPV mobile was the only phone out of the 3 to receive an mean rating (5.7) that is on the difficult end of the scale.

The main obstacles for this task were access to creating a text message on the Orange SPV which is via the ‘Inbox’ (subjects said they would not go to the Inbox to create a message) and use of the joystick which was problematic.

For task number 2 (change the ring tone) the Nokia was the only phone to receive a difficult rating (5), on average. This was mainly due to subjects not being familiar with the ‘Profiles’ concept and thus did not recognize that they should change the ring tone by personalizing the current active profile. Surprisingly, task 3 (access the BBC’s website by entering the URL) was reasonably well performed across all 3 phones.

The main difficulty, common to all phones, was identifying where and how to access the option to enter a URL directly in to an address bar within the browser.

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4.2 Success Ratings per Task

For each task there is an ideal ‘success state’. This is achieved when the user has performed the correct steps and, if relevant, entered any information correctly.

Users were instructed to say when they think they have completed each task as required or to indicate if they would have given up on this task if it were a realistic situation. For each task, the test facilitator recorded one of the following:

  • Fully successful (100%) – The user performed the task exactly as desired.
  • Partially successful (50%) – The user reaches a state that deviates slightly from the desired result but is still acceptable to achieve the task.
  • Unsuccessful (0%) – The user makes fundamental mistakes in completing the task or if the user concludes that they would have stopped or given up had they been carrying out this task in ‘real life’.

success rating per task

It is clear that the specified tasks were completed most consistently on the Samsung. The Nokia produced the least successful average across the three tasks. The largest variation in success rate was performed using the SPV.

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4.3 Perceived Need to View Instructions

As we were interested in the intuitiveness and ease of learning for each of the phones, test subjects were not provided with the phone instruction manuals. Instead, at the end of each task, as well as asking users to provide an ease of use rating for the task, they were also asked if they would have referred to the instruction manual if it were available to them.

Prefer instruction

The results for subjects’ perceived need to view the instructions correlated well with the results derived for average ease of use ratings. For example, on average, subjects found it most difficult to perform task 2 using the Nokia phone.

This relates to the Nokia phone receiving the highest count (in the above chart) for task 2.

The need for instructions was strongest for the Orange SPV. It did not produce the highest response across all three tasks (Task 2=Nokia; Task 3=Sony Ericsson) but was the highest average across all three tasks (63%). This means that, across all three tasks, subjects wanted to refer to the instructions 63% of the time.

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4.4 Ranking of Phones Based on Ease of Use

After the use of all four phones, subjects were asked to rank the phones in order of their perceived ease of use.

Ranking of phones

It is clear that a vast majority (78%) of the subjects rated the SPV as the most difficult to use. 44% of the subjects rated the Sony Ericsson as the easiest to use. They had mixed views on the Nokia as it ranked fairly evenly from 1st – 4th.

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4.5 Ranking of Phone Attributes in General

As part of the comparative questionnaire, subjects were asked to rank, in general, mobile phone aspects in order of their importance. In addition, the same question was asked of a further 135 participants in order to generate a more rigorous sample, and the results are given below.

Ranking of Phone Attributes in General

This graph suggests that ease of use is of primary importance to the subjects of the tests and to the respondents of the wider survey. Comfort of use was also ranked highly on average. This result correlates well with the general responses provided during the evaluation. The subjects are willing to forego a perception of quality if the product is usable. Surprisingly, the need for phone features is the second least important aspect with respect to a mobile phone.

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5. Conclusions

From our sample of representative users, it is notable from the derived quantitative results and from qualitative feedback from each participant that no single phone stands out as being the most easy to use or the most desirable to own. From the tests, we can conclude that each phone’s perception, in terms of providing an overall good user experience depends upon a myriad of factors.

These factors include:

  • How intuitive is the navigation and it’s structure and is it obvious where to access the menu system
  • Are the labels within the navigation clear and meaningful
  • Can users tell where they are and to know (through feedback) what to do next or what they are expected
  • How comfortable is the phone to use – size, weight, display size, key usage
  • Appropriateness and clarity of icons
  • Visual clarity of information displayed on the phone display
  • Responsiveness and performance of the phone (battery life, key presses, etc.)
  • Importantly – Subject’s range and depth of experience using previous and currently owned mobile phones also affects their learning ability of new or unfamiliar phones

Despite a number of positive and negative comments raised regarding all four mobile phones it is clear that the Orange SPV presented the most usability problems. The user frustration caused by the joystick control overshadowed other features (both positive and negative) of the phone. Despite being marketed as a Windows style interface the application does not operate in that manner asIt was not noted by many of the subjects. The physical size and weight, despite adding a perception of quality, was considered slightly too big for the mobile market.

A number of conclusions can be drawn from the Sony Ericsson S700i. It was also unclear how to locate the special characters on the keypad as well as switching between upper and lower case letters. This was impeded by subjects’ familiarity with their current mobile phone model. In terms of terminology, the use of the label ‘Dictionary T9′ proved to be problematic for users when trying to switch off predictive text.

The phrase ‘Dictionary T9′ did not convey the same message as e.g. ‘Predictive Text On/Off’.

The Samsung D500 phone was more difficult to operate for those with large hands. The recessed design of the keypad coupled with the smaller keys made operation of the keypad more difficult a task than was necessary. Operation of the ‘up’ arrow on the directional controls is impeded slightly by the raised surface below the display.

The distance between the soft keys and the corresponding label on the Samsung is sufficiently large to make it difficult for the user to directly link the two. There is not a direct linear relationship between the soft key and the label. Had the soft keys been positioned directly underneath the keys perhaps the subjects would have visually and cognitively linked the two.

The Samsung provided good feedback to the user when the WAP disconnected. As accessing the web may incur an additional cost, users need clear feedback to say that they are disconnected. This is important as many users do not know how the charges work i.e. is the charge time from initial connection, size of data, or download only? Subjects also found the method by which they should enter a URL to be clear and easy to achieve.

The way in which the phonebook entries are set up proved confusing to the subjects. Subjects expected to search according to the individual’s first name. However, the search results were presented alphabetically by surname.

The design of the joystick, despite presenting a large centre (enter) feature was difficult to operate. The concave nature of the button made it difficult to accurately select without activating the one of the four directional buttons first. It was also considered that the personalise feature was embedded too far down into the system. Finally, as was the case with the Sony Ericsson there was no clear method to preview ring tones prior to selecting them.

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6. Recommendations

The design recommendations derived from the evaluation are divided into hardware and software recommendations:

Hardware:

  • Avoid recessed keypads (particularly for physically smaller mobile phones) as this makes it more difficult to press the desired keys
  • Navigation features such as joysticks and joy pads should not be cumbersome to use. The press-able area should be large enough so that selecting the centre of the control (pushing it downwards) will not cause accidental selection of the directional outcomes (i.e. left, right, etc.).
  • Avoid providing a concave shape for the directional navigation/select feature.
  • Ensure the operation of the directional controls is not impeded by overhangs such as the up button on the Samsung i.e. ensure that the keys are clearly accessible and operable by up to the 95% of people. For example, the size and spacing of the keys and navigation keypad on the Sony S700i resulted in the most positive comments in terms of ease of selection and use.
  • Include the ‘home’ key that was provided on the SPV or make it clear to the user what the quickest method is to return to the home page.
  • Colour coding of certain keys is required e.g. Web key, home key.
  • Good feedback is provided with the key clicks on the Nokia. This is in stark contrast of the SPV.
  • The dot on the number 5 key should be pronounced to provide tactile feedback.
  • Clear identification for access to the menu system is required. A soft key link from the home screen is an effective and accurate method. However, the Sony Ericsson joystick method requires fine control and is prone to wear.
  • If alternative functions are available on a single button, all functions should be displayed or indicated on the button itself. This allows users to recognize that the button has more than one purpose or function. The number of functions should be limited to two maximum
  • Ensure that predictive text can be switched on/off with a maximum of 3 key presses from the text message window. The option should be presented in a clear and concise manner e.g. Dictionary (T9) ·ON ·OFF.

Software:

  • With respect to browsing the internet the address field should be provided from the outset or easily accessible. It should also be clearly differentiated from the search facility.
  • Select meaningful folder names in which to group functions. A good example is the Sony Ericsson ‘File Manager’ which fits well with the windows metaphor.
  • The ability to preview ring tones prior to selecting them is required. This should be automatic to minimize the number of actions required.

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7. Acknowledgments

User Vision would like to thank the Wireless Innovation Centre  near Glasgow for the use of one of its research phones for the purpose of this study.

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